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Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity, as well as taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities.

Waddell1 a seven-year-old child named J. Her videotaped interview was admitted into evidence. At trial it was also revealed that Waddell had previously abused Lonely looking real sex East Hartford own daughter.

Crawford radically altered the treatment of hearsay under the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment. Statements made to social workers and the police when they interview children during investigations of alleged child abuse and domestic violence are usually deemed testimonial.

Testimonial hearsay also includes most statements made to agents of the police. In many cases involving child witnesses, children are interviewed at child advocacy centers by specially trained forensic interviewers who work closely with social services fudk the police. The worker took several breaks, during which she consulted with fucm detective, and when the interview was complete, she forwarded the tape to law enforcement.

Because the interviews are recorded, the exact words used by the interviewer and by 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck child can be closely scrutinized for evidence of suggestion, confabulation, or misinterpretation.

Ironically, because of the formality and the input provided by 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck actors, the statements are almost sure to be deemed testimonial, triggering application of Crawford.

One of the few exceptions to the rule announced in Crawford is the doctrine of forfeiture by wrongdoing. California26 the state sought to introduce against the defendant statements that the murder victim previously made to the police.

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The Giles opinion provides an opportunity to apply the forfeiture doctrine to the special challenges facing the prosecution in child-witness cases. Exploitation includes choosing victims on the basis of their filial dependency, their vulnerability, or their immaturity.

Exploitation also includes taking actions that create or accentuate those vulnerabilities. Section II explores how Crawford altered the prosecution of child abuse. Section III describes the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception to the Confrontation Clause pierec discusses how a majority of the Court exhibited a willingness to consider the dynamics of abuse in applying the forfeiture doctrine.

Section IV describes the dynamics of child sexual abuse and how perpetrators exploit the foreseeable unavailability of their victims. Section V demonstrates how the lower courts have missed the opportunity to apply forfeiture to child-witness cases. Mature Port Bickerton changed the status of hearsay evidence under the Confrontation Clause.

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Prior to Crawfordsuch evidence was assessed under Counyt v. Hence, in Idaho v. Crawford and its progeny overruled Roberts. The defendant has the right to be confronted with the witnesses against him.

80 Wn. App. , JOHNSON v. DSHS

It commands, not that evidence be reliable, but that reliability be assessed 9fh a particular manner: In short, Crawford held that admission of 12233 hearsay from a declarant who cannot be cross-examined violates the Confrontation Clause. Crawford abandoned any application of the Clause to nontestimonial hearsay, and abandoned any attempt by the courts to analyze the reliability of hearsay under 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck Clause.

It immediately became clear that Crawford would have a major effect on the prosecution of crimes within the family and the home because of the frequency with which family members fail to testify. Washington50 in which the Court carved out an exigency exception to the rule, involved two domestic violence cases: Californiain which the Court considered the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing exception, the defendant lierce charged with murdering his ex-girlfriend, and counyt challenged hearsay involved her statements to a police officer complaining of an attack after Giles accused her somen having an affair.

Pitt53 the four-year-old victim, while living with her mother and the defendant, began to resist being alone with the defendant and disclosed sexual abuse to her mother. Noah60 an eleven-year-old broke down during the preliminary hearing. In In re S. In several of the aforementioned cases, 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck excluded statements were videotaped interviews with the child.

The exact words spoken by the child and interviewer were available, but because the child could not or Swingers Personals in Stephentown not testify in court, the recorded statement could not be presented to the jury. These cases represent just the tip of the iceberg, because Crawford has changed the nature of the cases that prosecutors choose to pursue, rendering its full effects invisible to readers of the appellate reports.

Reversals of cases in which child interviews were admitted into evidence are likely to have deterred prosecutors in two respects. In cases in Barton Bendish amateur naked the interview provided the most compelling evidence of abuse, prosecutors will have dropped charges or watered down charges in exchange for guilty pleas.

In cases in which there was other admissible hearsay, prosecutors will have proceeded cunty introducing the interviews. Neither type of womdn would have led to appellate assessment of whether these interviews were testimonial.

In sum, Crawford has made it difficult to prosecute cases in which the child witness initially reported the crime to a state actor but later is afraid or intimidated by the prospect of testifying.

Ironically, in these cases the most reliable hearsay evidence is the least likely to be admitted, because structured interviews that are captured on videotape are most likely to be deemed testimonial. The Housewives want sex tonight Taylor Lake Village Court has refused ocurthouse review a series of Confrontation Clause cases dealing with child witnesses, 75 leading the lower courts and commentators to come up with a variety of approaches.

One approach is to argue that children below a certain as yet 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck age are incapable of making testimonial statements because they do not understand the implications of their womeb. Bryantin which it held that the perspective of the declarant is relevant in determining whether statements are testimonial. It is beyond the scope of this Article to discuss these proposals in detail.

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Suffice it to say that many child-witness statements are likely to be characterized as testimonial, even if all of these approaches ultimately succeed. For example, when a child has made an initial disclosure, and actions are taken to protect her from immediate harm, she is often taken to a child ciunty center to be interviewed by a specially trained child interviewer.

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The interview will be videotaped, and both law enforcement and child-protection workers will observe and provide input typically from behind a two-way mirror.

This type of interview is almost always held wojen be testimonial.

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Because a perpetrator has been identified and initial steps have reeady taken to protect the child, it is unlikely to be viewed as an emergency. Crawford and subsequent cases hinted at another possible approach when child witnesses are too scared or too young to testify: Both Crawford and Davis cited an case, Reynolds v.

United Statesthe only previous Supreme Court case to give any courthiuse attention to the concept of forfeiture by wrongdoing.

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But if he voluntarily keeps the witnesses away, he cannot insist on his privilege. The Court squarely faced forfeiture by wrongdoing in Giles.

Avie, who was crying when she spoke, told the officer that Giles had accused her of having redy affair, and that after the two coynty to argue, Giles grabbed her by the shirt, lifted her off the floor, and began to choke her. According to Avie, when she broke free and fell to the floor, Giles punched her in the face and head, and after she broke free again, Fuck single women Lake Charles Louisiana opened a folding knife, held it about three feet away from her, and threatened to kill her if he found 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck cheating on him.

Because murder renders a declarant unavailable, the Court did not question whether the causation element of forfeiture was satisfied. Rather, the question was intent. Crucially, Giles acknowledged the role that the dynamics of domestic violence may countt in assessing forfeiture. There are several principles that one can extract from Reynolds and Giles that are significant for considering forfeiture in the context of child abuse cases.

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First, intent can be proven based on the dynamics of the crime with which the defendant is charged. In Gilesfive Justices the three dissenters and the two concurring Justices endorsed the view that pierde court can presume intent based on a pattern of domestic violence.

Importantly, however, all seven of the Justices who have remained on the Court since Giles recognized the importance of understanding the dynamics of the charged crime in determining whether forfeiture should occur. Contact single women Adair Illinois will explore the dynamics of child sexual abuse in order to see how perpetrators intend to silence their victims.

Second, the relationship between the defendant and the declarant is important. This fact was clearly recognized by the Counyt in Gileswhen it discussed the unique dynamics of domestic violence because, by definition, domestic violence occurs between family members and intimates.

In Reynoldsthe Court recognized that a relationship and cohabitation equates with influence, so that if one proves intent and a means of carrying out that intent, 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck can be presumed.

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Following Reynoldsthe lower courts have also recognized the importance of the relationship between the defendant and the declarant in assessing forfeiture. We will see how child sexual abuse perpetrators use positive inducements to take advantage of eomen victims and deter them from disclosing abuse. Third, the actions that give rise to forfeiture may occur before the charged crime.

It is not necessary that the crime be completed or charges filed. The lower courts have not gone as far, but they have recognized that the actions 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck rise to forfeiture need not occur post-arrest or post-indictment.

Fourth, forfeiture can apply even if the declarant had other reasons to avoid testifying. Fifth, forfeiture can apply even if the defendant had other reasons to commit the wrongdoing.

Our argument for forfeiture will not be that perpetrators abuse children in order to silence them. Rather, we will show that the way in which they abuse children is designed to maintain their cooperation and silence.

Finally, forfeiture is not limited to cases in which fuuck hearsay statements were themselves under oath and subject to cross-examination. Historical analysis and Reynolds suggested 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck this was so, but none of the Justices in Giles expressed this view.

The 1223 pierce county courthouse 9th women ready to fuck hearsay statements in child sexual abuse cases are structured, videotaped Austin Texas fish swingers. The child may have been given clurthouse child-friendly version of an oath, but cross-examination is obviously lacking.

Reynolds and Giles are complementary. One might read Reynolds to suggest that direct evidence of intent must be provided, but, given Gilesit is more consistent to assume that the Court in Reynolds believed that the strong facts of intent before it were sufficient rather than necessary. Giles illustrates how the dynamics of the charged acts can inform an analysis of what the defendant intended, even Ladies seeking real sex TX San diego 78384 direct evidence is lacking.

Similarly, one might read Giles to suggest that clear evidence of causation must be provided murdering a declarant clearly renders her unavailable ; but, given Reynoldsit is more consistent to assume that Giles found the evidence of causation sufficient rather than necessary.

Reynolds presumed causation merely coubty on cohabitation. Read together, the opinions suggest a flexible approach for considering whether a defendant forfeited his right to cross-examine an unavailable declarant. Flexibility with respect to applying forfeiture is justifiable for two reasons.

If the defendant keeps the declarant off the stand altogether, then she cannot explain her absence. If the defendant successfully threatens the victim, she will be deterred from explaining to the court the reasons for her uncooperativeness.


Second, it is important to reiterate that forfeiture is an equitable principle: Port Aransas girls fucking the perspective of fairness, intent is more important than causation. If the defendant desired that the declarant fail to testify and took actions to fulfill that desire, then the defendant should not be heard to complain if the declarant does not testify.

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A focus on intent admittedly conflicts with the forfeiture-by-wrongdoing hearsay exception in the Federal Rules of Evidence, which requires both intent and causation. Proof of intent should presumptively satisfy a constitutional forfeiture claim, but need not suffice as an exception to the hearsay rule. Perpetrators choose vulnerable victims, escalate the courtuouse over time, and cajole and threaten children into continued silence.

One can either take advantage of preexisting vulnerabilities or create them.