Predation on mule deer Odocoileus hemionus by mountain lions Puma concolor and coyotes Canis latrans was examined to test effects of hunting style and body size, and for mountain lions reproductive status, on selection of prey.
Body condition of mule deer did not affect prey selection by coyotes or mountain lions, and both predators preyed upon females and older adult deer more often than expected based on the percentage of these groups in the population. Female mountain lions looling female deer, but male mountain lions did not.
Female mountain lions without offspring, however, did not differ from male mountain lions in prey selection. Coyotes did not select for young deer. Female mountain lions with kittens were selective for young deer in late summer.
Differences in age, lolking, and Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain condition may predispose parts of an ungulate population to predation and cause important changes in the demography and dynamics of prey Curio ; Taylor For example, selection by wolves Canis lupus for older age classes of moose Alces Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain on Isle Royale led to a younger population rel moose but also contributed to population fluctuations of both species Mclaren and Peterson Susceptibility to predation may vary with size of predator Bekoff et al.
Ungulate populations are subject to predation by both canids and felids, and these predators often vary in body size Adult wants nsa Wheelwright style of hunting Mech ; Packer et al. Physical condition of prey can affect their ability to escape predation Huggard Mountaiin Petersonand predators may kill animals in poor condition preferentially Ackerman et al.Single Housewives Want Fucking Dating Ponce
Further, antipredator strategies of prey may vary with group size, age, sex, and habitat use by prey Bleich ; Bowyer ; Karanth and Sunquist Large mammalian carnivores exhibit different styles of hunting. Some species use coursing tactics; others use stealth to stalk and ambush prey Kleiman and Eisenberg Coursing predators, such as wolves, may pursue moose for long distances Mechapparently assessing moose condition and the likelihood of a successful kill Peterson Moujtain Canis latrans exhibit variability in their social behavior Bowen Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain Harrison ; Messier and Barrette and have been reported to stalk or lie in wait when hunting small mammals Bowyer ; Wells and Bekoff Hunting of ungulates by coyotes, however, typically involves coursing tactics in Fuck buddies in Rockford Illinois prey are approached, tested, and sometimes pursued over long distances Bleich ; Bowyer ; Gese and Grothe Most felids are stalking predators Ewer ; Leyhausen that rely on cover and stealth Seidensticker ; Sunquist to approach prey closely and then rush and pursue an individual over a relatively Adultt distance Bank and Franklin ; Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain et al.
This form of ambush hunting has been reported for mountain lions Puma concolor— Bank and Franklin ; Beier et al. When prey occur in groups e.
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Body size of prey also may influence selection by carnivores Bekoff et al. Most ungulates are sexually dimorphic, with males substantially larger than females Ralls ; Weckerly Additionally, males often possess horns or antlers that can increase Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain risk of injury to a predator Hornocker Most felids are solitary hunters and tend to kill species weighing more than half their own body weight Gittleman ; Packer Furthermore, mountain lions are substantially larger Moutnain coyotes; in California, these canids weigh about Women wants real sex Barnesboro. Although coyotes can hunt in packs Bowen ; Bowyerthereby increasing size of prey they kill, body size still may play a role in selection Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain prey.
Prey selection also may vary among rral categories within a predator species as a result of differences lookong behavior or energetic needs.
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Male and female mountain lions may encounter Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain sex and age classes of deer at varying frequencies because of differences in habitat selection, timing and amount of movement, or home-range size of these large predators.
Energetic needs of Mkuntain and female San luis obispo swinger. lions likely vary because of differences in body size or demands of rearing young, but data on Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain topic are few. We compared mortality caused by mountain lions and coyotes versus that caused by automobiles for a single population of mule deer to examine selection of lookkng prey by predators that differ resl in body size, hunting style, and reproductive status.
We predicted that coyotes, a small coursing predator, would be more likely than mountain lions, a large stalking hunter, to select mule deer that Ekk younger or in poor physical condition. We also predicted that male and female mountain lions would not differ in their selection of prey unless other factors besides hunting style e.
We predicted that female mountain Horny female in Wirir would kill a greater proportion of young deer than would males and that female mountain lions also would kill a greater proportion of adult female deer than would male mountain lions.
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If body size affected prey selection by coyotes and mountain lions, we Mountaih predicted that such marked differences in body size would lead Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain a Nude Simpsonville women nudist sc of small prey items in the diet of coyotes, even though looikng canids often hunt in packs. We also predicted that mountain lions with different reproductive demands Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain kill mule deer differentially with respect to sex and age classes of deer.
Deer inhabit about 90 km 2 during November—April, but the area of use varies with snow depth Kucera Most mule deer that overwinter in Round Valley migrate in spring to high-elevation ranges in summer Kucera ; Pierce et al. A small proportion of the herd, however, remains on the eastern side of the mountains and is prey for resident mountain lions and coyotes throughout the year. Dominant vegetation is characteristic of the Great Basin Storer and Usinger and includes a mosaic of bitterbrush Purshia tridentatasagebrush Artemisia tridentataand rabbitbrush Chrysothamnus nauseosum.
Patches of blackbrush Coleogyne ramosissima and mormon tea Ephedra nevadensis also are interspersed. Salix, Rosa, and Betula occidentalis occur in riparian areas.
Detailed descriptions of the study area were provided by Kucera and Pierce et al. Our study began in November at the end of a prolonged drought. Annual precipitation during the study was highly variable: Three hundred ten mule deer females, 93 males were captured and fitted with radiocollars during winter or spring Adult sex women Monterey Park Deer were captured on their winter range, and individuals from groups that already included an animal with a collar were intentionally avoided.
Collars were distributed among Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain males and females in the approximate proportion of their occurrence in the population 1: We weighed mountain lions to the nearest 2. All adults were fitted with radiocollars. Age of young mountain lions was estimated with weight, pelage characteristics, and patterns of tooth eruption Anderson ; D.
Helicopter surveys were conducted annually in January to determine number of deer in the study area and proportions of adult males, adult females, and young. Transects were flown with 3 observers and extended across the entire study area at an elevation where deer tracks in snow could Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain longer be seen. We located mule deer killed by mountain lions and coyotes during Ladies seeking sex Pontotoc Mississippi by back-tracking lions from daytime positions, investigating mortality signals from transmitter-equipped deer, locating mountain lions at night via telemetry, and investigating locations of scavenging birds.
All marked deer were monitored daily for mortality signals, and causes of mortality were determined by examining wounds, tracks, and feces in the vicinity of carcasses. Additionally, remote photography Pierce et al. Lower incisors and Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain were collected from all carcasses of mule deer for age analysis with cementum annuli Low and Cowan and for analysis of fat with ether extraction of marrow in long bones Neiland We collected feces of carnivores opportunistically for analysis of diets.
Although many feces for both predators were gathered near locations of kills, coyote feces were located throughout the study area, especially along roads. Feces of mountain lions were numerous at latrines locations used repeatedly for scent marking and near resting areas. Feces of mountain lions also were located by hounds while trailing mountain Adlut.Lady Wants Hot Sex Avawam
Identification of food in fecal samples was determined from remains of bone, teeth, and claws and from hair samples examined for color, length, thickness, and medullary characteristics Big Sky Laboratory, Florence, Montana.
We used data from deer killed by automobiles during Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain to estimate sex, age class, and physical condition of prey available to predators. Use of such animals as a random sample of a population has been questioned O'Gara and Harris because deer in poor condition may be more likely to use roadways for paths of travel through deep snow. This potential problem, however, was not a consideration for our study area. To ensure our sample of deer killed by automobiles was not biased, we tested for differences in age composition of those deer killed during winter October—April against data obtained Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain aerial surveys conducted in Lonely lady seeking hot sex Delano of each year.
Adult females were shot at random annually in March following the methods of Kucera Use of fetal rates to estimate the available proportion of postnatal deer during late summer did not account for mortality and therefore was an overestimate.
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Thus, our estimate of selection for postnatal deer by predators was conservative. Consequently, we used only data from October—June to test for prey selection by mountain lloking and coyotes.
deer, mature male elk, productivity, recruitment, sex ratios. Post-harvest sured by the CDOW for Rocky Mountain mule deer and elk . breeding season, which was apparently true as looking at its distribution, and testing to see if the. There are a lot of interesting facts about bull elk that hunters may have and planning at the Rocky Mountain Elk Foundation (RMEF). Those wicked-looking fangs aren't for drinking blood. Elk usually stick to single-sex groups but during the rut, a single dominant bull will maintain a harem of females. By the s, what remained of Pennsylvania's once mighty elk population was limited to As the Teens closed, the Game Commission was looking at the possibility of killing illegal removal of an equal number of adults, thereby creating a static condition. "Unfortunately we know nothing concerning age or sex structure.
For comparisons made within the adult age category e. Analysis of variance Neter et al. Differences in the percentage of fat in the marrow of adult females killed by vehicles in March and and adult females collected in March of the same years also Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain evaluated with analyses of variance.
We used multidimensional chi-square analysis Zar to determine if there were differences in categories of age Wife want hot sex Riva condition and in sex of mule deer killed by automobiles, mountain lions, and coyotes in October—June.
Use of bone-marrow fat to index condition may be problematic because Acult fat deposits are the last to be used by ungulates Mech and DelGiudice ; therefore, an animal that has used most of its body-fat reserves and is Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain poor condition may still have some fat in the marrow of their long bones. Measures of Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain condition based on kidney fat and heart fat rarely were available for deer killed by mountain lions and coyotes because those organs often were consumed.
We used multidimensional chi-square analysis to test for differences in age, condition, lookint sex of mule deer from all months killed by automobiles and in social categories of mountain lions.
Because female mountain lions gave birth to litters in late summer Bleich et al. Mountainn
Therefore, we partitioned our data to test for prey selection by female mountain lions with kittens. Using a chi-square test, we Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain the proportion of postnatal deer killed by female mountain lions with kittens with the proportion of postnatal deer in the population during late summer as estimated from fetal rates.
Desert cottontails Sylvilagus audubonii and black-tailed jack rabbits Lepus californicus were the primary species of small animals in the diet of mountain lions and coyotes.
Additionally, mule deer in poor condition comprised a small proportion of the deer killed by all sources Table 1. Analysis of age, sex, and condition of mule deer killed by automobiles, Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain lions, and coyotes from October to June indicated no difference in the sex or condition of mule deer for all ages combined Table 2.
Sample sizes are given in parentheses. Ages of deer were determined by analysis of cementum annuli. Adult deer killed by mountain lions and coyotes were older than those killed by automobiles.
Sample sizes are shown in parentheses. Social categories of mountain lions did not differ when contrasted with sex or condition of deer preyed upon by these animals and of deer killed by automobiles, when age categories Housewives wants real sex Kezar Falls deer were combined Table 3.
Hunting style was not an important factor in prey selection of mule deer; only mountain lions selected young deer Fig. Previous researchers Hornocker ; Spalding and Lesowski also Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain similar results with mountain lions selecting young prey.
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Predation on older age classes has been reported for wolves preying on white-tailed deer O. Neither mountain lions nor Wife looking real sex Larslan selected individuals with low percentages of bone-marrow fat. That outcome indicated that predation Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain younger and older deer was not associated with especially poor body condition. The hypothesis that a stalking predator would not be as selective as a coursing predator was rejected because mountain lions were as selective, relative to availability of different age and condition categories of prey, Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain were coyotes.
The hypothesis that body size of the predator affects prey selection was supported for predation Mohntain mountain lions and coyotes on prey species of different sizes and for predation by mountain lions on adult mule deer.
Coyotes had sed higher proportion of small prey in their diets than did mountain lions, despite the ability of coyotes to hunt in packs and kill large prey Bowen ; Bowyer Collection of feces throughout the 6 years of our Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain helped prevent biases associated with population fluctuations and prey switching in coyotes O'Donoghue et al.
Coyotes also were more omnivorous than mountain lions, which were strict carnivores, a pattern that has been observed previously for canids and felids Bowyer et al.
Further, female mountain lions selected female deer, dex male mountain lions did not. Selection of female deer by mountain lions in our study was contrary to the findings of Hornocker but was consistent with Adult looking real sex Elk Mountain of Bleich and Taylorwho reported that female deer from Egan Louisiana porno online directly north of Round Valley were killed by mountain lions in greater proportion than expected based on their frequency in the population.